The Science of Climate Change 1. What are climate change and global warming, and how are they related? Back to Top A.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,Table 1. EPA and the Department of Energy DOE have underway a number of programs to foster the development and deployment of energy-efficient technologies.
It would have the effect of reducing anticipated emissions below "business as usual" levels in the future see Figure 3 ; however, the initiative does not reflect the level of aggressiveness assumed by the "New 5-Lab Study" for policy interventions to achieve its "advanced scenario" for rapid penetration of energy-efficient technologies.
This hypothetical goal would imply reductions equal to the difference between the goal and what would be "business as usual emissions" for the period Higher than base case economic growth or lower penetration of energy-efficient technologies would mean that emissions would be even higher and reductions necessary to meet a goal like Kyoto greater.
Slower economic growth, or faster penetration of energy-efficient technologies as suggested by the 5-Lab Study, would decrease emissions and hence reductions to meet a goal. It is too early to assess progress toward the Administration's goal of diminishing greenhouse gas intensity.
These projected emissions levels and any implied reductions are gross estimates and do not take sinks into account except for the intensity projection. As previously noted, the baseline could be revised, at least slightly.
More important, such projections depend on assumptions about economic trends as well as about policy actions at the local, domestic, and international levels. However, whatever the assumptions, the trend in total emissions experienced over the past decade and projected for the next decade is clearly upward, while the UNFCCC goal was for stabilization and the Kyoto Protocol calls for emissions levels of developed nations to decline.
Additional Considerations in Assessing Possible Reductions If one is concerned about assessing the implications of possible reduction requirements in the future, two further factors must be considered.
|Global Warming||Unless other commitments were made to reduce the total surplus in allowances, such trade would not actually result in emissions being reduced : However, using the GIS is not required under the Kyoto Protocol, and there is no official definition of the term.|
|President Trump signs executive order rescinding President Obama’s clean energy plans - ABC News||Climate Change from Culture Wars in America: Although there remains a minority of staunch skeptics, climate change is almost universally regarded as a fact in the scientific community and generally linked to human activity, in particular the burning of fossil fuels.|
|The Enhanced Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming | timberdesignmag.com||The theory behind global warming has been understood by climatologists since at least the s, but only in the new millennium, with an apparent tipping point inhas the mounting empirical evidence convinced most doubters, politicians, and the general public as well as growing sections of business that global warming caused by human action is occurring.|
One is sequestration, which removes CO2 from the atmosphere, thereby reducing gross emissions. The second is a series of proposed trading mechanisms that could allow a country to take credit for reductions it sponsors in other countries.
The United States was a strong supporter of including both these variables in the Kyoto Protocol. Sequestration could directly diminish a country's reduction requirement; trading does not change a reduction requirement, but it could affect costs and who would actually achieve the reductions.
Atmospheric greenhouse gas levels are affected not only by emissions, but also by carbon sinks -- processes that remove and sequester carbon from the atmosphere.
Activities that affect sequestration include farming and forestry practices. For example, a positive net growth of trees removes carbon from the atmosphere; clearing forests typically releases carbon. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, ," includes figures for carbon sequestration from land-use activities and forestry, which are the difference between "total emissions" and "net emissions.
The Kyoto Protocol also would provide that sinks can be taken into account in calculating a nation's emissions and its reduction obligation. In general, then, a net increase in human-induced carbon sequestration from forestry practices between and would be subtracted from emissions during the period, thereby reducing the amount of actual emissions that will have to be curtailed.
Conversely, net negative sequestration from forestry practices would be added to the emissions that will have to be reduced.
Just how this calculation would be done is not prescribed in the Protocol, and disagreements on how much carbon sequestration could be counted toward a nation's reduction obligations were debated through several subsequent conferences.
In Julythe Sixth Conference of Parties in Bonn COP6 agreed to limits on sequestration activities that could be credited against the Protocol's reduction requirements. Although the United States chose not to participate in these proceedings, the Conference stated in a footnote 26 that under the methodology agreed upon, the United States could take credit for net increases of sequestration of up to 28 million metric tons per year.
Emissions trading, strongly supported by the United States in the Kyoto negotiations, derives from the principle of economic efficiency -- that reductions, if necessary, should be achieved at the lowest cost. Trading mechanisms thus are designed to allow low-cost reductions to substitute for higher-cost ones.
The idea is that a country could achieve its reduction goal not only by reducing its domestic emissions, but also by reducing emissions elsewhere. Trading does not actually reduce a nation's reduction requirement, but it does allow it to contract for and to count reductions elsewhere that are cheaper to achieve than domestic ones.
The Kyoto Protocol provides for emissions trading mechanisms 27 that can be used to "supplement" domestic reductions; this offers the possibility that actual domestic greenhouse gas reductions achieved by a party to the Kyoto Protocol will be less than the party's actual commitment.
Some portion of the reduction requirement could be shifted elsewhere. The Clinton Administration argued that emission trading would be critical to U.
Conclusion The precise numerical projections of greenhouse gas emissions or of proposed reductions should be viewed as indicative see Figure 3. They are less accurate than they appear, given the potential for revisions in data and the uncertainties of projections.
But in assessing the status of U.
None of the reviewed scenarios using assumptions that diminish emissions -- low economic growth, putting off retirement of nuclear facilities, accelerated fostering of energy-efficient technologies, the President's voluntary program to reduce greenhouse gas intensity -- reverses the upward trend in aggregate greenhouse gas emissions by Any goal to reduce emissions to or below levels would require the continuing upward trend to turn down.
Even with the potential for sequestration and emissions trading to reduce domestic reduction efforts, a goal to reverse greenhouse gas emissions trends would represent an extraordinary technical and political challenge for U. Kyoto Protocol, Article 3 1.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: Department of State, U.The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO 2 emissions have predominantly caused it.
The Senate in fact passed the Byrd-Hagel Resolution in , by a unanimous vote of , warning the Clinton administration not to enter into any treaty that omitted developing nations or hurt.
Clinton Administration Vice President Al Gore was a main participant in putting the Kyoto Protocol together in President Bill Clinton signed the agreement in , but the US Senate refused to ratify it, citing potential damage to the US economy required by compliance.
The Pros and Cons of Global Warming - The climate on the Earth is changing. Ice age is interleaved with the global warming. In the present age, the temperature of the Earth's climate system continue rapidly increase and it leads to global warming. Bill Clinton on Environment; Political pundits.
If you double your gas mileage, it cuts cost & reduces CO2 The agreement the administration made with the management, labor, and environmental groups to double car mileage, that was a good deal. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) stated the following in its publication "Feeling the Heat," available at timberdesignmag.com (accessed May 12, ): "The average temperature of the earth's surface has risen by degrees C since the late s.