E Political or religious leaders? Question To what extent is a human being a part of a larger group, and to what extent is he or she a free and separate individual? What is the balance between the need for community and the need for liberty?
Print Here at Greater Good, we cover research into social and emotional well-being, and we try to help people apply findings to their personal and professional lives. We are well aware that our business is a tricky one. Many people never read past the headlines, which intrinsically aim to overgeneralize and provoke interest.
Because our articles can never be as comprehensive as the original studies, they almost always omit some crucial caveats, such as limitations acknowledged by the researchers.
To get those, you need access to the studies themselves.
For example, we recently covered an experiment that suggests stress reduces empathy—after having previously discussed other research suggesting that stress-prone people can be more empathic.
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An experiment is merely interesting until time and testing turns its finding into a fact. Scientists know this, and they are trained to react very skeptically to every new paper.
They also expect to be greeted with skepticism when they present findings. However, journalists like me, and members of the general public, are often prone to treat every new study as though it represents the last word on the question addressed.
This particular issue was highlighted last week by—wait for it—a new study that tried to reproduce prior psychological studies to see if their findings held up. The result of the three-year initiative is chilling: The team, led by University of Virginia psychologist Brian Nosek, got the same results in only 36 percent of the experiments they replicated.
Despite all the mistakes and overblown claims and criticism and contradictions and arguments—or perhaps because of them—our knowledge of human brains and minds has expanded dramatically during the past century.
Psychology and neuroscience have documented phenomena like cognitive dissonance, identified many of the brain structures that support our emotions, and proved the placebo effect and other dimensions of the mind-body connection, among other findings that have been tested over and over again.
These discoveries have helped us understand and treat the true causes of many illnesses. Given the complexities and ambiguities of the scientific endeavor, is it possible for a non-scientist to strike a balance between wholesale dismissal and uncritical belief?
Are there red flags to look for when you read about a study on a site like Greater Good or in a popular self-help book? If you do read one of the actual studies, how should you, as a non-scientist, gauge its credibility?
We came up 10 questions you might ask when you read about the latest scientific findings. These are also questions we ask ourselves, before we cover a study.
Did the study appear in a peer-reviewed journal? Peer review—submitting papers to other experts for independent review before acceptance—remains one of the best ways we have for ascertaining the basic seriousness of the study, and many scientists describe peer review as a truly humbling crucible.
Who was studied, where? Animal experiments tell scientists a lot, but their applicability to our daily human lives will be limited. Similarly, if researchers only studied men, the conclusions might not be relevant to women, and vice versa.
In trying to replicate one German study, for example, they had to use different maps ones that would be familiar to University of Virginia students and change a scale measuring aggression to reflect American norms.
This kind of variance could explain the different results. It may also suggest the limits of generalizing the results from one study to other populations not included within that study.
Does that mean you should dismiss Western psychology? How big was the sample?
In general, the more participants in a study, the more valid its results. That said, a large sample is sometimes impossible or even undesirable for certain kinds of studies. This is especially true in expensive neuroscience experiments involving functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI, scans.
And many mindfulness studies have scanned the brains of people with many thousands of hours of meditation experience—a relatively small group.
Even in those cases, however, a study that looks at 30 experienced meditators is probably more solid than a similar one that scanned the brains of only Did the researchers control for key differences? A good researcher tries to compare apples to apples, and control for as many differences as possible in her analysis.The Purpose of the Paper.
For a dissertation or thesis, these are just some of the possible questions, and for research scientists submitting a proposal, affirmative answers to all these questions are the bare minimum for receiving a research grant.
Interview research questions - Think 24 7 Content ResultsEducation Answers · Trusted Teachers · Education · Quality AdviceService catalog: Compare Courses, Exam Results, Local Schools, Advice, Online Courses. The qualitative research interview seeks to describe and the meanings of Intersperse fact-based questions throughout the interview.
Ask questions about the present before questions about the past Paper presented at the International Conference for Community College Chairs, Deans, & Other Instructional Leaders, Phx, AZ, Dec 11, · Interview Essay Paper Topic Ideas.
Updated on June 4, Virginia Kearney. Ask those questions to at least five people and record their answers. That question should make an interesting paper.
It would be a good idea to interview some people in charge of a community, such as people on the city council or the Reviews: 7. Ten Questions to Ask about Scientific Studies These are also questions we ask ourselves, before we cover a study.
Diversity or gender balance aren’t necessarily virtues in a research study; it’s actually a good thing when a study population is as homogenous as possible, because it allows the researchers to limit the number of.
After easing into the interview with simple questions, you can seek information about personal opinions or about more controversial issues. 4. Ask questions about the present before moving into questions about past events or future events.