Sociolgy notes

There are multiple interpretations of what this might mean. They sometimes float in and out of academia: Applied sociologists sometimes collaborate with academics on specific projects, and academics sometimes carry out commissioned contract work for clients typically government agencies or community organisations.

Sociolgy notes

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Definition[ edit ] In neoclassical economics theory, labor market discrimination is defined as the different treatment of two equally qualified individuals on account of their genderrace[1] agedisabilityreligionetc. Discrimination is harmful since it affects the economic Sociolgy notes of equally productive workers directly and indirectly through feedback effects.

Differences in outcomes such as earnings, job placement that cannot be attributed to worker qualifications are attributed to discriminatory treatment. It is important to note that the process is as important as the outcomes. Civil Rights Act ofthe movement towards equality has slowed Sociolgy notes after the mids, especially more in gender terms than racial terms.

Many studies find that qualification differences do not explain more than a portion of the earnings differences. The portion of the earnings gap that cannot be explained by qualifications is then attributed to discrimination.

One prominent formal procedure for identifying the explained and unexplained portions of the gender wage differentials or wage gap is the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition procedure. This approach has the advantage of studying economic outcomes of groups with very similar qualifications. However, it is difficult to determine the extent to which this is the result of racial discrimination.

Although the gap in earnings between men and women was very small immediately after graduation, it widened in 15 years to the point that women earned 60 percent of what men earned. Other studies on relatively homogeneous group of college graduates produced a similar unexplained gap, even for the highly educated women, such as Harvard MBAs in the United States.

One such study focused on gender wage differences in between the college graduates. The researchers took college major, GPA grade point average and the educational institution the graduates attended into consideration.

Yet, even after these factors were accounted for, there remained a percent pay gap based on gender. Another study based on a survey of all college graduates had similar results for black and white women regarding gender differences in earnings. However, the results of earnings were mixed for Hispanic and Asian women when their earnings were compared to white, non-Hispanic men.

Sociolgy notes

A study looked at Harvard graduates. The results showed 30 percent of the wage gap was unexplained. Therefore, although not all of the unexplained gaps attribute to discrimination, the results of the studies signal gender discrimination, even if these women are highly educated.

Human capitalists argue that measurement and data problems contribute to this unexplained gap. In order to examine racial discrimination, the Urban Institute relied on a matched pairs study. The job position was entry-level.

Thus, they matched pairs of black and white men and pairs of Hispanic and non-Hispanic men as testers. The testers applied for the advertised openings for the new positions.

In addition, they went through training sessions for the interviews. If both people in the pair were offered the job or if both were rejected, the conclusion was there was no discrimination.

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However, if one person from the pair was given the job while the other was rejected, then they concluded there was discrimination. The Institute found out that black men were three times more likely to be refused for a job compared to white men; while the Hispanic men were three times more likely to be discriminated.

The percentage for interviews was by 10 percent more for the white testers. Among those interviewed, 50 percent white women were offered the job, while only 11 percent of black candidates received jobs offers.

The white testers were also offered higher pay for the same job in cases where the same job was also offered to the black testers.

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