One or more phosphate groups. Cytosine, thymine and uracil are pyrimidineshence the glycosidic bonds forms between their 1 nitrogen and the 1' -OH of the deoxyribose.
The monomer or the repeating unit is known as the nucleotides and hence sometimes nucleic acids are referred to as polynucleotides. Nucleic acids can be defined as organic molecules present in living cells.
It plays a key factor in transferring genetic information from one generation to the next.
In the nucleus, nucleotide monomers are linked together comprising of distinct components namely a Phosphate Group, Nitrogenous Bases or Ribose and Deoxyribose.
Pyrimidines and Purines are two types of nitrogenous bases. Pyrimidines are composed of cytosine and thymine. Purines are composed of guanine and adenine. Thymine is replaced by Uracil in ribonucleic acid whereas deoxyribonucleic acid comprises of all four bases.
It is a cellular molecule that is organized into chromosomes. It is a double helix formed by of 2 polynucleotide chains that are twisted. There are 2 strands of DNA which are parallel to each other. Hydrogen bond binds two helices and the bases are bundled within the helix.
Due to the presence of phosphate groups, DNA is negatively charged. Chemically, DNA is composed of a pentose sugar, phosphoric acid and some cyclic bases containing nitrogen. The cyclic bases that have nitrogen in them are adenine Aguanine Gcytosine C and thymine T.
These bases and their arrangement in the molecules of DNA play an important role in the storage of information from one generation to the next one. RNA Structure RNA plays a vital role in the synthesis of proteins that mainly involves decoding and translation of genetic code and transcription to produce proteins.
RNA molecule is also composed of phosphoric acid, a pentose sugar and some cyclic bases containing nitrogen. The RNA generally consists of a single strand which sometimes folds back. There are several different types of RNA and each has a specific function. Ribosomal RNA — It is one of the component of ribosomes that are involved in protein synthesis.
Functions of Nucleic Acids Nucleic Acid is responsible for synthesis of protein in our body RNA is a vital component for protein synthesis. Loss of DNA content is linked to many diseases. DNA is an essential component required for transferring genes from parents to offspring.
All the information of a cell is stored in DNA. DNA fingerprinting is a method used by forensic experts to determine paternity. It is also used for identification of criminals.
It has also played a major role in studies regarding biological evolution and genetics.Nucleic acids are long-chain polymeric molecules, the monomer (the repeating unit) is known as the nucleotides and hence sometimes nucleic acids are referred to as polynucleotides.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are two major types of nucleic acids. NUCLEIC ACID STRUCTURAL ENERGETICS 3 donate hydrogen bonds, and this plays a key role in determining the equilibrium structure of a nucleic acid, as discussed below.
DNA and RNA Structures Nucleic acids have a primary, secondary, and tertiary structure analogous to the classification of protein structure. The sequence of bases in the nucleic acid chain gives the primary structure of DNA or RNA.
The two types of nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, and ribonucleic acid, or RNA. DNA can be found in most living organisms and is found in the nucleus of living cells.
G-quadruplexes are guanine-rich nucleic acids that fold by forming successive quartets of guanines (the G-tetrads), stabilized by intra-quartet hydrogen bonds, inter-quartet stacking, and cation. Nucleic acids are molecules that allow organisms to transfer genetic information from one generation to the next.
These macromolecules store the genetic information that determines traits and makes protein synthesis possible.